2012 1210 Habitatsurvey Calabashseagrass – Youtube

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How To Snorkel And Use Snorkelling Equipment

Attach the snorkel tube to the mask straps snorkel tube holder and put the mask on; the mask strap should go over the crown of the head, while the mask itself comes down over the eyes and nose. Ensure the mask is tightened securely and sits firmly in place. Put the snorkel in the mouth, adjusting it as necessary so it feels comfortable. Getting in the Water If entering the water via a beach and it is necessary to walk into the water, walk in backwards, sliding the feet back and sideways, so as to avoid tripping on the blades of the fins. When entering deep water from a boat, sit on the edge, and push off from the side. If the edge is quite a distance from the waters surface, stand up on the edge and step into the water, first ensuring the water is deep enough. It will be necessary to hold the snorkel mask so that it does not slip up the face when making contact with the water.

Eau/snorkel   (mv) – Youtube

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Wholesale 5pcs 144wcree Led Aquarium Tank Light/lamp For Lps Sps Coral Reef Grow For Sale – New And Used

Wholesale 5pcs 144WCree LED Aquarium Tank Light/Lamp For LPS SPS Coral Reef Grow: $929 Real Genuine Mink Fur Long Coat A CheckA out my other items addA me to your favorites list SignA up for myA email newsletters My Testimonials 2014 New Bestseller 5Pcs 144W Cree LED Aquarium TankA Light/Lamp For Coral Reef LPS SPS Fish Grow Dimmable ! You are offerding onA 2014 Brand New 5Pcs x 144W Cree Led Aquarium Light 5pcs wholesale ! 6 revolutionary features! 1. The revolutionaryCree LED. (Cree LED is leading the LED revolutionA with its brightness, efficacy, lifetime and quality of light) 2. The revolutionary lens system. (increase penetration, wider beam angle,A increase 50% more PAR, penetrate deep into the tank bottom! superA widercoverage!) 3. The revolutionary Chain system. (link up to 12 lights just using 1A power) 4. The revolutionary dimmable brightness system. (Suitable for the growthA of LPS/SPS different lighting Low/Medium/High) 5. The revolutionary longer life time. (outperform anything in theA Aquarium lights industry) 6. The revolutionary cooling system. (create less heat, do not have to runA a chiller unit) The light has 2 different configurations (Blue and White) and can be usedA independently of one another depending on the needs. Blue or WhiteA or Blue + White. [Whiteled: Make the Marine Coral Reef Fish moreA brilliant] [Blue led: Conducive to growth ofMarine Coral Reef Fish]A Full spectrum good use for aquarium lighting, coral growing, reef, etc. (SomeA factory add Red light, This could be dangerous to Coral/Reef/Fish) White (sun light) and Blue (moon light). Best for all kinds of Corals ReefA LPS SPS growth. High efficiency, save 80% power consumption. Unique design,A light is beautiful. Use kinetic theory of air to solve the heat problem. CanA be directly placed above the Tank, no scorching at all. do not have to run aA chiller unit. Easy to install and use, plug into the electric outlet (85-265VA AC) directly. Running quiet and cool, save 3~5 times power consumption.A save Money! Steady performance, 50000hrs long life time, environment-friendly. Ce & RoHS & FC certificate. 2 years warranty. Powerful 144W Cree LED aquarium light Ideal for replaceA Incandescent/Fluorescent/Metal Halide aquarium light ! Parameters LED Aquarium light, SteelA hanging kits, Power Cable How to Calculate Light Quantity? ———- a SMALL AQUARIUMS Tank Size L x W x H Filled Weight Recommended 2 1/2 gallon 12″ x 6″ x 8″ 27 lbs 1 light 5 gallon 16″ x 8″ x 10″ 62 lbs 1 light 10 gallon “Leader” 20″ x 10″ x 12″ 111 lbs 1 light 15 gallon 24″ x 12″ x 12″ 170 lbs 1 light 15 gallon High 20″ x 10″ x 18″ 170 lbs 1 light MID-SIZED AQUARIUMS Tank Size L x W x H Filled Weight a 20 gallon High 24″ x 12″ x 16″ 225 lbs 1 light 20 gallon Long 30″ x 12″ x 12″ 225 lbs 1 light 25 gallon 24″ x 12″ x 20″ 282 lbs 1 light 29 gallon 30″ x 12″ x 18″ 330 lbs 1 light 30 gallon Breeder 36″ x 18″ x 12″ 348 lbs 2 lights 40 gallon Breeder 36″ x 18″ x 16″ 458 lbs 2 lights 40 gallon Long 48″ x 12″ x 16″ 455 lbs 2 lights LARGE AQUARIUMS Tank Size L x W x H Filled Weight a 50 gallon 36″ x 18″ x 19″ 600 lbs 2 lights 55 gallon 48″ x 13″ x 21″ 625 lbs 2 lights 65 gallon 36″ x 18″ x 24″ 772 lbs 2 lights 75 gallon 48″ x 18″ x 21″ 850 lbs 2 lights 90 gallon 48″ x 18″ x 24″ 1050 lbs 2 lights 125 gallon 72″ x 18″ x 21″ 1400 lbs 3 lights 150 gallon 72″ x 18″ x 28″ 1800 lbs 3 lights 180 Gallon 72″ x 24″ x 25″ 2100 lbs 3-4 lights Why choose us? 1.We areA professional manufacturer of led grow light! 2.Best price! 3.GreatA quality! 4.Fast shipping! 5.Good service! Wholesale click here Payment is expected within 7 days after sale ends. In case of any delay in payment, Please notify us in advance.

yellow coral

Coral Reefs

Unicellular zooxanthellae live within the tissue of many species of corals

District 24-3A Girls team scores: 1. Coral Reef 382; 2. Coral Gables 409; 3. Palmetto 452. Individual results: 1. Lauren Eustace (CR) 89; 2. Leia Schwartz (CR) 93; 3. Marissa Urrutia (CG) 94; 4. Bianca Mangravite (CG) 94; 5. Kelly Pearson (PAL) 95; 6. Krystal Farinas (CR) 97; Individuals advancing to regionals: Belen Gonzalez, Lourdes; Cristina Almarez, Lourdes; Alyssa Rabade, Terra. Boys team scores: Palmetto 315, Coral Reef 326, Coral Gables 330, TERRA 341, South Dade 348, Killian 411.

Coral reef girls’ golf capture district golf tournament

Natascha Preussner (left) and Rachel Zimmerman check out the offerings as AmericanAirlines Arena rolls out new gourmet items this season for Heat fans in the Flagship seats.

Even with the nutrition provided by zooxanthallae, the process of building a reef is slow. Branching species grow 1020 mm per year while massive species grow 1 mm per year or less. Abiotic Factors and Coral Reefs Figure 3 The physiological constraints of sequestering calcium and carbonate ions from the environment and depositing a calcium carbonate skeleton set the physical boundaries that limit the distribution of corals. Both temperature and salinity affect calcification, restricting tropical coral reefs to waters between 2329C and in a salinity range of 3240 (Figure 5). The reliance of hermatypic (e.g., reef-building) corals on photosynthetic zooxanthallae to grow fast enough to produce reefs further limits coral reef distribution. Photosynthesis requires light, and the dependence of corals on zooxanthallae limits corals to shallow depths. Most reef building corals occur in less than 25 m of seawater. In addition, turbidity reduces light penetration, which restricts coral growth. High sedimentation rates can also bury or smother these sessile animals. While corals gain some nutrition from their symbiotic zooxanthallae, corals are heterotrophic because they capture zooplankton from the water column with their tentacles. As a sessile organism, corals must rely on currents to bring food as well as aid in gas exchange; however, high flow can reduce the ability of corals to capture food and waves can fracture and damage corals. Figure 5:Global distribution of coral reefs 2010 Nature Education All rights reserved. Zooxanthallae give corals their pigment, such that the loss of the zooxanthallae, either through death, exiting the host coral, or actually being consumed by the coral itself, is commonly referred to as “bleaching” due to the remaining visible white coral skeleton. Corals live at the uppermost boundary of their temperature tolerance. Even a 1C increase in sea surface temperature can stress zooxanthallae, causing corals to bleach (Glynn 1993). While bleaching can be fatal to corals, especially when bleaching occurs over a large portion of the coral colony, corals are able to recover, obtaining new zooxanthallae from the water column. In addition to the effects of temperature on reef health, increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and subsequently the ocean lowers the pH a process referred to as ocean acidification. While the net impact of lower pH on coral reefs continues to be examined, decreases in pH can reduce the calcification rates of corals and other calcifying organisms (Ries et al. 2009). Formation and Zonation of Coral Reefs Figure 6 Charles Darwin first proposed the theory of atoll reef formation. He postulated that fringing reefs develop close to the shoreline in shallow waters around volcanic islands (Figure 6). As a volcanic island begins to subside into the ocean over geological time, the corals on these fringing reefs grow upward towards the light, maintaining and expanding the reefs position. As the island continues to subside, the shoreline becomes further from the reef and a shallow lagoon forms between the shore and the reef. These offshore reefs, or barrier reefs, protect the coast from ocean waves. Eventually, the island completely subsides into the sea, leaving an atoll, a ring of shallow reefs without any mainland. Scientific research on atolls in the mid-twentieth century supports the hypothesis of reef formation first described by Darwin over a hundred years earlier. Coral reefs can be separated into three distinct zones: the back reef, reef crest, and fore-reef (Figure 7). The back reef includes the shallow lagoon between the shore and coral reef. This habitat includes small patches of corals, sea grass beds, and sand plains. The back reef is often warmer because of the shallow depth, reduced water flow, and protection from waves. Salinity can also fluctuate due to fresh water inputs. In addition, sediment and runoff from shore can increase turbidity in this zone. The reef crest is the pinnacle of the reef and can be exposed to the air during extreme low tides. The reef crest is a harsh http://nytimes.com/2012/07/14/opinion/a-world-without-coral-reefs.html?pagewanted=all environment, with the potential for desiccation and UV stress associated with a shallow environment. In addition, breaking waves limit coral diversity to only a few species that can persist in this high-energy zone. The staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, can form dense monotypic stands along the reef crest. The thin branches of A. cervicornis aid the coral in asexual reproduction, with branches breaking off and moving during large storm events.

Florida group rebuilds vital coral reefs

“The coral reefs were so pretty. So many fish and so many neat things to see.” Nedimyer became a commercial fisherman and tropical fish collector, working in the ocean nearly every day of the year. But by the mid-1980s, he noticed a troubling trend. Two of the region’s most important corals, staghorn and elkhorn, were in drastic decline. The corals — tiny, stationary marine animals that make up the reefs — were dying because of many reasons, including climate change, pollution and overfishing, experts said. Today, they’re on the endangered species list. “The coral reefs of the Florida Keys are the most threatened and the heaviest-used coral reefs in the world,” said Billy Causey, southeast regional director of the National Marine Sanctuaries, an entity of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ken Nedimyer became worried watching coral reefs decline over the years. Now he’s doing something about it. Reefs are often referred to as the rainforests of the sea. They attract more marine life than anywhere else in the ocean because of the natural shelter they provide. But they’re declining worldwide, not just in Florida, and some scientists fear that they could all be gone by 2050. “Coral reefs provide protection for our coastal areas, habitat for fish and recreational opportunities for millions and millions of people,” Nedimyer said. “It’s very important to protect that whole ecosystem.” Reefs also have great economic value. Many people around the world depend on fisheries and the ocean for their livelihood. In the Florida Keys alone, more than 50 percent of the local economy is connected to a healthy marine environment. “If coral reefs died completely, entire economies would be disrupted,” Nedimyer said. As Nedimyer saw reefs die over the years, he became very concerned. A look at an underwater coral nursery “It became a consuming passion (for me) to try to find ways to protect and restore coral reefs,” he said. That passion led to Nedimyer starting the Coral Restoration Foundation , which has grown more than 25,000 staghorn and elkhorn corals in underwater nurseries. He and his staff of volunteers work three days a week maintaining the nurseries just off Key Largo. The nurseries cover more than an acre of the ocean floor. “Ken’s coral nursery is the largest in the wider Caribbean,” Causey said. “It’s probably 10 times larger than any others that I know of.” Do you know a hero? Nominations are open for 2012 CNN Heroes Nedimyer’s methods for growing corals have evolved over the years, but they’re all simple, easily duplicated and can be taught to anyone who can dive, he said. After the corals spend about a year growing in the nursery, they are transplanted to a reef in the wild. The goal is to get them to reproduce on their own and repopulate an area where they no longer exist. The Coral Restoration Foundation grows corals in underwater nurseries. After about a year, the corals are taken to the wild. “We’ve been able to recreate one of the biggest thickets in the Florida Keys of staghorn coral, and that’s something we can duplicate throughout the Keys and throughout the Caribbean,” Nedimyer said. Through education and awareness, Nedimyer has built a community committed to bringing coral reefs back to the Keys. His organization often collaborates with other groups, including the NOAA and the Nature Conservancy, a nonprofit conservation group. Nedimyer also spends a lot of time showing high school students his methods and working with them at his nurseries. “This isn’t just about me,” Nedimyer emphasized. “It’s about engaging a lot of people and training people, and I think it has a lot of hope.” The impact is already noticeable in areas where corals have been transplanted. Fish and other marine life are starting to come back, and Nedimyer is hopeful that in time, the Keys’ ecosystem will recover. “Most people think coral takes forever to grow, but some of these corals grow really fast,” he said. “They grow fast enough that we could make a big difference in a lifetime or less.” Nedimyer’s most ambitious project is just ahead. Within the next five years, the Coral Restoration Foundation plans to grow and transplant 50,000 corals in the Keys, which he says is the largest effort of its kind in Florida and the Caribbean. “Before, I felt helpless watching corals die,” Nedimyer said.

Reef Arabia Plants 3d Printed Coral Reefs To Restore Persian Gulf Marine Life | Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation, Eco Architecture, Green Building

He was knighted for ‘services to economics’ in June 2004; his cross-bench non-party political peerage was announced in October 2007, and he was ‘introduced’ to the House of Lords in December 2007. Al Gore Al Gore Former Vice President Al Gore is co-founder and chairman of Generation Investment http://www.thereefs.org/cup-coral/Cup-Coral-SPS.html Management. He is a senior partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, and a member of Apple, Inc.’s board of directors. Gore spends the majority of his time as chairman of The Climate Reality Project, a non-profit devoted to solving the climate crisis. Gore was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1976, 1978, 1980 and 1982 and the U.S. Senate in 1984 and 1990. He was inaugurated as the forty-fifth Vice President of the United States on January 20, 1993, and served eight years. He is the author of the bestsellers Earth in the Balance, An Inconvenient Truth, The Assault on Reason, Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis, and most recently, The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change. He is the subject of an Oscar-winning documentary and is the co-recipient, with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for “informing the world of the dangers posed by climate change.” Host Femi Oke Femi Oke is an international journalist, broadcaster and writer. Femi is currently based in Washington D.C. where she hosts the interactive current affairs show “The Stream” for Al Jazeera English. Online she curates and writes for the social media organization Upworthy and blogs at therealfemioke.com. Femis work has been recognized by The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the African Communications Agency and InterAction. Since the 1980’s she has worked for BBC television and radio, all the UK terrestrial television networks, CNN and US public radio. You can reach Femi anytime via Twitter @FemiOke. Maggie Fox Maggie Fox Maggie L.

These rainforests of the sea are already sensitive to water temperature, so its no surprise that pollution, over fishing, and global warming are dramatically reducing the worlds coral reef population . To help counter this, Reef Arabia introduced nearly 3,000 concrete Reef Balls near Bahrain to create new homes for the ocean life that call these underwater structures home. For their latest project to restore ocean life to its natural order, Reef Arabia sunk its first-ever 3D-printed reef . The Reef Arabia team, made up of experts fromRiffa, Bahrain and members of Australia -based Sustainable Oceans International sunk two of these 3D printed reefs off the coast http://www.thereefs.org/cup-coral/Pagoda-Cup-Coral-Wont-Open.html of Bahrain last fall. The 1,100 pound reefs constructed in a partnership with DShape are made out of a non-toxic patented sandstone material. There are advantages to using sandstone. Not only are its properties closer to a natural earth rock than concrete, it also has a neutral pH level, which should make them a more hospitable home for all the small fish, crabs, and shrimp that normally use stony corals for shelter. Previously the team molded concrete into shape, but the team wants to switch to 3D-printing because it allows them to replicate natural reefs much more quickly. The prototype reef took a week to fabricate.

and raised in Zimbabwe. She earned an MFA in theatre from NYU after moving back to the U.S. Her initial success was as the co-lead of In the Continuum (a play she co-created and co-wrote while in the acting program at NYU). The upbeat powerful story focused on two women: one, an upper class, educated newscaster in Africa; the other, an impoverished teenager in south central L.A., who discover that they are HIV positive, and learn to cope in the face of hatred, discrimination and ignorance. Gurira performed the play off-Broadway, in numerous theaters around the U.S., and in Africa. She received numerous accolades including an Obie, the Outer Circle Critics John Gassner Award, the Global Tolerance Award (Friends of the United Nations) and the Theater Hall of Fame Honors. Gurira also received the Helen Hayes Award (Woolly Mammoth). She subsequently received a grant for research in Liberia and Sierra Leone which resulted in her second play Eclipsedthe story of women abductees trying to survive during that region’s devastating civil war. Gurira won Best Playwright at the NAACP Theater Awards and Best New Play at Helen Hayes Awards. And, on Broadway, Gurira starred Bartlett Shers award winning revival of Joe Turners Come and Gone. She also earned the Actors Equity Callaway Award for her performance as Isabella in the 2011 Shakespeare in the Park production of Measure for Measure. Gurira is also a Hodder Fellow at Princeton and a commissioned playwright with Yale Rep. She is co-founder of Almasi (Al-ma-see), a Zimbabwean American Dramatic Arts Collaborative Organization. Their mission is to instill professional values, skills and practices in the Zimbabwean Dramatic Arts through education and collaboration with professional American dramatic artists and artistic institutions. Gurira divides her time between New York and Los Angeles. Henry Neufeldt Henry Neufeldt Henry Neufeldt is head of the climate change research program of the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) in Nairobi, Kenya. Until mid 2009 he was based in the School of Environmental Sciences at University of East Anglia UK, and was a Senior Research Coordinator in the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and director of the ADAM Project (Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change). In his current position he leads the climate change research group at ICRAF that focuses at climate impacts, adaptation, mitigation, food security and sustainable development in the context of agroforestry systems. He is particularly interested in questions related to the institutional setup, financial feasibility and scalability of biocarbon projects and measurement and modeling of greenhouse has fluxes from complex agro-ecosystems. He is also the focal point of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. He has published extensively on sustainable land use in the tropics, agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Kumi Naidoo Kumi Naidoo Kumi Naidoo became Greenpeace International Executive Director on November 15, 2009. Kumi Naidoo has worked closely with Greenpeace for a number of years. He was involved in the development of Greenpeaces work in Africa and became a board member of Greenpeace Africa when it opened offices in Johannesburg and Kinshasa in 2008. More recently, he served as Chair of the civil society alliance Global Campaign for Climate Action (GCCA), of which Greenpeace was a founding member. Born in South Africa, Kumi became involved in the countrys liberation struggle at the age of 15. As a result of his anti-apartheid activities, he was expelled from high school. He was very involved in neighborhood organization, youth work in his community, and mass mobilizations against the apartheid regime. In 1986, Kumi was arrested and charged for violating the state of emergency regulations. He went underground for one year before finally deciding to live in exile in England. During this time he was a Rhodes scholar at Oxford and earned a doctorate in political sociology. After Nelson Mandelas release in 1990, Kumi returned to South Africa to work on the legalization of the African National Congress. During the democratic elections in 1994 he was the official spokesperson of the Independent Electoral Commission and directed the training of all electoral staff in the country. Kumi became the founding executive director of the South African National NGO Coalition (SANGOCO), an umbrella agency for the South African NGO community. Moved by the fact that South Africa has one of the highest rates of violence against women, Kumi organized the National Men’s March Against Violence on Women and Children in 1997. From 1998 to 2008, Kumi was the Secretary General and Chief Executive Officer of CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation, which is dedicated to strengthening citizen action and civil society throughout the world. He was also the founding Chair of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) and also served as a board member of the Association for Womens Rights in Development. In 2003 Kumi was appointed by the former Secretary General of the United Nations to the Eminent Persons Panel on UN Civil Society Relations. Al Gore Al Gore Former Vice President Al Gore is co-founder and chairman of Generation Investment Management. He is a senior partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, and a member of Apple, Inc.’s board of directors. Gore spends the majority of his time as chairman of The Climate Reality Project, a non-profit devoted to solving the climate crisis. Gore was elected to the U.S.

Coral Reefs

Diving in Bermuda to find the coral reef survivors

<img src='http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/cms/mg22029393.300/mg22029393.300-1_300.jpg&#039; width='300px' alt='Wipeout by warming spells trouble for the world's oceans (Image: Catlin Seaview)‘ style=’float:left;padding:5px’ />

These offshore reefs, or barrier reefs, protect the coast from ocean waves. Eventually, the island completely subsides into the sea, leaving an atoll, a ring of shallow reefs without any mainland. Scientific research on atolls in the mid-twentieth century supports the hypothesis of reef formation first described by Darwin over a hundred years earlier. Coral reefs can be separated into three distinct zones: the back reef, reef crest, and fore-reef (Figure 7). The back reef includes the shallow lagoon between the shore and coral reef. This habitat includes small patches of corals, sea grass beds, and sand plains. The back reef is often warmer because of the shallow depth, reduced water flow, and protection from waves. Salinity can also fluctuate due to fresh water inputs. In addition, sediment and runoff from shore can increase turbidity in this zone. The reef crest is the pinnacle of the reef and can be exposed to the air during extreme low tides. The reef crest is a harsh environment, with the potential for desiccation and UV stress associated with a shallow environment. In addition, breaking waves limit coral diversity to only a few species that can persist in this high-energy zone. The staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, can form dense monotypic stands along the reef crest. The thin branches of A. cervicornis aid the coral in asexual reproduction, with branches breaking off and moving during large storm events. These forked or branched fragments can then become wedged into other coral rubble and reattach to the reef substrate (Tunnicliffe 1981). Figure 7:Zonation of coral reef 2010 Nature Education All rights reserved. Diversity Hermatypic corals are the foundation that supports at least a million species associated with coral reefs (Figure 8). Almost every phylum of living creature can be found living on coral reefs, with over 800 species of corals alone (Vernon 1995). Corals provide the substrate for sessile organisms to attach, including algae, sponges, and non-reef building corals (e.g., fire corals, soft corals, gorgonians). In addition to corals, encrusting bryozoans, sponges, and calcareous red algae act as biological-cement, keeping the reef framework intact (Figure 9). The diverse benthic flora and fauna along with the calcium carbonate understructure increases habitat heterogeneity, which provides a refuge from predation for invertebrates such as crabs, lobsters, sea urchins, brittlestars, and molluscs.

Unicellular zooxanthellae live within the tissue of many species of corals

For two weeks we have been diving in the waters around Bermuda, out in the North Atlantic. On every reef there are the ghostly white signs of coral death in place of the multicoloured complexity we would expect http://www.thereefs.org/cup-coral/Cup-Coral-Lighting.html to see. Such “bleaching” has knock-on effects for biodiversity across the reef. Our job at the Catlin Seaview Survey is to identify which species are vulnerable and which are apparently robust, and why. Bleaching occurs when the symbiotic relationship reference between coral and diverse groups of algae breaks down. An increasingly common feature of reefs worldwide, it is brought on by thermal stress resulting from seawater temperature anomalies associated with climate change. Studying coral bleaching can thus help us predict the threats reefs will face in the future. This makes our survey in Bermuda particularly important. Our arrival coincided with a bleaching episode, one that has given our team normally based at the Global Change Institute at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia its first opportunity to witness a large-scale event of this kind. Our observations are adding to a detailed picture of the world’s coral reefs, being pieced together online at a repository called the Catlin Global Reef Record . Documenting coral bleaching is time-consuming, and our working day can stretch to 18 hours. The team is up early to check the kit: gas bottles are refilled, lenses cleaned or replaced, data recorders reconfigured. A successful day rests on this housekeeping. By 8.30 am, it is time to dive. We may be drifting in the Atlantic, but we are not working in isolation. A tip-off from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, based in Silver Spring, Maryland, alerted us to the possibility of catching a bleaching event in progress and made us intensify our work. NOAA routinely monitors ocean temperatures, and our colleagues there noticed unusually large and sustained warming early in the season around Bermuda. Without doubt, our most important tool for logging these changes is the SVII, a specially developed three-camera system which captures 360-degree panoramas. With the SVII mounted on an underwater scooter, we can survey a 2-kilometre-long transect in just an hour, capturing thousands of images in the process. Our colleagues at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego, California, will later help us analyse these images and rapidly identify marine species. A modified version of the facial recognition software used by security experts to identify suspects in a crowd makes this work easier. Today, part of our team is working on the reef’s shallows. About 70 per cent of the fire corals here have already been bleached, although there is less damage to brain corals and other reef-builders. While our divers work on the shallow reef, our “deep team” remains on the ship to survey the reefs further down using a remote-controlled robot vehicle. It lets us scrutinise areas of the reef beyond the reach of scuba diving, work that is vital to fully understanding the reef’s functioning. Encouragingly, we have found no signs of bleaching at depths greater than 15 metres. The results of such studies are beginning to feed through into coral management schemes. We may not be able to prevent bleaching, but we can help conservationists choose marine protected areas more wisely, so that they include coral reefs that might be particularly bleach-resistant. The bleaching we are seeing is similar to that seen in other parts of the world. It is extensive yet selective, and a rapid recovery can follow. For Bermuda’s reefs, though, recovery is not guaranteed. They lie on the edge of the largely tropical band in which coral communities are viable, and reef diversity here is relatively low, leaving the ecosystem vulnerable. But as our time here draws to a close, there is cause for some optimism. Our readings suggest the area is beginning to experience a seasonal drop in seawater temperature, which may counteract the warm water anomaly and help buy some species time. With luck, it is a sign that the peak of this particular bleaching episode has passed, offering these astonishing reefs a window of recovery. This article appeared in print under the headline “The white spectres of death underwater” Manuel Gonzalez-Rivero is a research fellow at the University of Queensland New Scientist magazine delivered every week Unlimited access to all New Scientist online content – a benefit only available to subscribers Great savings from the normal price

How Do Coral Reefs Form? – By Jose Juan Gutierrez – Helium

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And now British sculptor Jason deCaires Taylor has unveiled his latest collection of sub-aquatic art – this time with a serious message. The 39-year-old has unveiled a new series of works in the Museo Subacuatico de Arte, the subaquatic museum he co-founded back in 2009 off the coast of Cancun, Mexico. The new pieces include the submerged cement heads of the anchors on American news show NBC Today, cast when deCaires Taylor appeared on the show, which sit eerily amid a bed of sea grass. Under the sea: Jason deCaires Taylor’s underwater sculpture ‘Vein Man’ at the Museo Subacutico de Arte. Over time bright yellow fire coral will travel along the stainless steel lattice and look like blood through veins Life below the surface: ‘The Anchors’, a sculpture by Jason deCaires Taylor, sits in a bed of sea grass Living art: An underwater sculpture by artist Jason deCaires Taylor, entitled ‘Resurrection’. The work uses live purple Gorgonian fan coral (Gorgonia flabellum), which had been displaced from the reef system in a storm Man on fire: The artist’s sculpture ‘Self-Immolation’, is made from black pH neutral marine cement, and depicts a solitary burning figure. Over time it will be overrun with fast-growing, bright yellow live fire coral A number of the new works deal with the devastation of the natural marine habitat. One of the sculptures, called No Turning Back, a cement cast of a hunched-over woman, alludes to the loss of Caribbean coral reefs, while Self-Immolation depicts a solitary burning figure – a reference to the practice of setting yourself on fire as a form of political protest. The superyacht of the future: Stunning ship with a skeletal structure that’s set to be on every billionaire’s shopping list Made from black pH neutral marine cement, the work is augmented with stainless steel spines, and over time it will be overrun with fast-growing, bright yellow live fire coral which will mimic flames. Mr deCaires Taylor said: ‘I try to use the work to highlight the huge losses we’re having and how our blue planet is changing quite dramatically. Talking art: ‘The Speaker’ stands in a bed of sea grass. The sculpture is planted with more than http://www.thereefs.org/cup-coral/Orange-Cup-Coral-Habitat.html 200 cuttings of rare Acropora Prolifera coral Stunning: The sculpture is planted with more than 200 cuttings of the rare Acropora Prolifera coral, in Cancun, Mexico Prolific: DeCaires Taylor now has 510 sculptural works permanently on display at the site, many of which feature live coral Latest additions: The 39-year-old has unveiled a new series of works in the Museo Subacuatico de Arte, the subaquatic museum he co-founded back in 2009 off the coast of Cancun, Mexico ‘Future generations aren’t going to see the same number of species and fantastic pristine reefs. ‘But I want to balance that sadness – in order to inspire people, you have to offer them hope as well.” Another of deCaires Taylor’s sculptures is Resurrection, a winged angelic-looking figure, which uses live purple Gorgonian fan coral, rescued after being displaced from the reef system and damaged during a recent storm. Strong currents around the museum meant that the sculptures had to be craned from a bridge into a nearby canal and then toed out to the site. The Dover, Kent, born artist said: ‘Some of these were much more delicate than pieces I’ve made before, so it was difficult working in tough conditions. Art with a message: A number of the new works deal with the devastation of the natural marine habitat Natural subject: ‘No Turning Back’ in the Museo Subacutico de Arte in Cancun, Mexico, a cement cast of a hunched-over woman, alludes to the tragic loss of Caribbean coral reefs Artistic installation: One of the artist’s latest sculptures is pictured being lowered down into the water at the submarine park Last light: The sculpture gets one last glimpse of daylight before being completely submerged by the water Getting wet: No turning back is carefully winched into the water and placed on a rock at the bottom of the ocean ‘I had to box some of them up in crates and then sink them underwater in their crates. Believe me, taking a crate apart underwater is difficult.’ DeCaires Taylor now has 510 sculptural works permanently on display at the site, although these are his final additions for the time being as he prepares to relocate back to Europe. However, the museum has been a huge success, receiving 250,000 visitors each year, and deCaires Taylor is trying to secure funding to eventually expand it to include 8,000 figures – more than the famous Terracotta Army. He said: ‘I’m leaving Mexico, but I’ve got this legacy here, that my daughter can come back in twenty years time and it will still be there.’ Some of his more creative works include a life-size version of a Volkswagen Beetle and an underwater ‘city’ of homes.

by Jose Juan Gutierrez Created on: January 30, 2013 Coral reefs are marine structures made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) secreted by stony corals and other marine species living in the reef. Corals are colonial organisms composed of hundreds of thousands of individual animals known as polyps, which cluster in groups. Polyps secrete calcium carbonate skeletons which protect and give support to their bodies. Coral reefs may take from tens of thousands to millions of years to form and grow best in warm, shallow, clear waters with temperatures, ranging from 23-29 C. Coral reef formation Coral reefs form when free-swimming larvae attach to submarine rocks or any other hard surfaces, forming colonies, along the edges of island or continents. The formed colonies grow into large groups of coral polyps which secrete calcium carbonate beneath and around them, contributing to the reef’s structure. A coral reef grows vertically following the sunlight. Once the coral reaches the surface sea level, it begins to grow horizontally. Over time, the abundance of marine life within the reef is broken down by the effect of ocean waves and eroding animals, forming complex coral reef ecosystems. Reef structures There are different types of reefs based on their morphology and their relation to the nearby land. Fringing reefs, the most common type of reef, project towards the sea, forming borders along the shoreline. Fringing reefs typically have a sand-filled channel between the reef and the shoreline. Barrier reefs form at at greater distances from the main shoreline and they usually have a deep lagoon which separates them from the adjacent land. Atolls form when a central volcanic island subsides below sea level, while the coral continues to grow upward, forming a central lagoon. Time formation When corals begin to attach and grow around an island, it may take approximatelly 10,000 years for a fringing coral reef to form. Over the next 100,000 years, the interior island will subside, forming a fringing reef with a central shallow lagoon in between the reef and main land. The submergence of the main land continues, and at approximately 30,000,000 years, the whole island will completely submerge under the sea, leaving a circular ring of growing coral surrounding a central lagoon. Coral reef building species usually develop well in the photic zone, which is the region of the ocean where light can penetrate to a depth of approximately 100 meters (328 ft.). Reef-building corals can tolerate temperatures between 24 to 30 degrees C. Other coral species can tolerate temperatures of 40 degrees C, such as those found in deeper ocean waters. Most corals require salty water ranging from 32 to 40 parts per thousand and clear nutrient free water , so that the light from the sun can penetrate and permit the process of photosynthesis to occur. Certain species of corals cease to exist at greater ocean depths. Corals are scarce in turbid or nutrient-rich waters. This is due to amount of suspended particles, preventing the penetration of sunlight. In certain colder regions or at depths beyong 70 meters, certain species of corals may develop around hard surfaces; however, their capacity to secrete calcium carbonate skeletons is significantly reduced. According to oceanworld.tamu.edu , Coral reefs grow about half of an inch every year, but if left undisturbed by man, a coral reef can grow large, such as The Great barrier Reef in Australia with 150 km (93 miles) across and 2,000 km (1,242 miles) long. Learn more about this author, Jose Juan Gutierrez . Click here to send this author comments or questions. Below are the top articles rated and ranked by Helium members on: How do coral reefs form?